Latest News

Feline salmonellosis (paratyphoid)

Salmonellosis refers to all infectious diseases in animals, birds and humans caused by different species of bacteria and Salmonella. The disease is characterised by signs of septicaemia and toxaemia and lesions of the digestive and respiratory organs. Salmonellosis is most dangerous in kittens aged 1-2 months. Adult cats are also at risk of infection, but salmonellosis is less frequent in adult cats, due to the better developed immune barrier in the digestive tract of the adult cat.


The causative agents are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family, which consists of 20 genera. The disease in cats is mainly caused by three types of Salmonella: S. enteritidis, S. typhimurium and S. suipestifer. The main mode of transmission of Salmonella to humans and cats is via contaminated food of animal origin.

Salmonellae survive for a long time in the external environment: up to 120 days in water, 2 to 4 months in meat and meat products, up to 4 months in frozen meat 1 year, up to 10 days in milk (up to 20 days in the fridge), up to 4 months in butter, up to 1 year in cheese and up to 18 months in soil. In milk and meat products, the bacteria can not only survive, but also multiply, without changing the appearance or taste of the product.

Salting and smoking affect them only very slightly. Infected eggs are absolutely indistinguishable in appearance, smell and taste from normal eggs.

The introduction of Salmonella into the cat’s system via food in carnivorous animals primarily causes a latent infection, with virtually no manifestation of the disease. Animals with latent infection excrete the pathogens in the faeces, but this is erratic and the bacterial concentration is low. In cats with latent infection, salmonellae are not only shed in the faeces or in the intestinal tract, but also in the lymph nodes and other internal organs. If such animals are exposed to negative factors, their body’s resistance decreases andia symptoms characteristic of feline salmonellosis.

The symptoms of this disease in cats are extremely varied and often make it difficult to make an accurate diagnosis without the use of laboratory tests. The incubation period ranges from 12-24 hours to 3 or more days.

There is a distinction between acute, pre-acute and chronic course of the disease. In the chronic course of the disease, the animal refuses food and the cat is agitated, but this state quickly changes to depression. The cat’s general body temperature rises to 41-42C and remains at this level throughout the disease, with slight fluctuations. Diarrhoea and sometimes vomiting occur. The kittens lie down for longer periods of time, their eyes become puffy and watery.

In a comatose state, the animal may die on the 2-3rd day of the disease. In the pre-acute phase of the disease, acute gastrointestinal disturbances, a rise in body temperature (up to 40-41C), loss of appetite, and a depressed state are the most common symptoms. The faeces of the animal become liquid or watery with mucus, and sometimes even blood. Signs of rhinitis and bronchopneumonia are often present. The animal dies on the 7th to 14th day.

In chronic disease, diarrhoea alternates with constipation. Additional symptoms include anaemia and purulent conjunctivitis: the animal dies after 3-4 weeks with severe emaciation.


Salmonellosis is diagnosed by laboratory examination of clinico-epizootological data. Diagnosis of the disease on the basis of clinical signs alone is difficult.


The treatment of enteritis caused by salmonellosis must focus on symptomatic therapy. Actions are taken to stop the dehydration of the body. In the case of a toxic infection, detoxification of the body is carried out. Antibacterial therapy includes furazolidone, biseptol or other sulphanilamides, as well as antibiotics such as levomycetin, oxytetracycline and ampicillin.

No comments
Post a Comment

    Reading Mode :
    Font Size
    lines height