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About neutering dogs

So why? “And indeed! – you will say, “a dog is not a cat, it growls twice a year, it is possible to put up with it, to walk the dog on a leash, and to threaten curious cavaliers with a stick”.

Neutering dogs, and more specifically bitches, should be seen primarily as a method of preventing serious diseases. The sexual functions of animals are regulated by hormones produced by various endocrine glands.
The estrous cycle begins when the pituitary gland releases a hormone that activates ovarian function. Ovarian hormones cause enlargement of the vulva (external genitalia), changes in the lining of the uterus and discharge.

If there are no lesions in the body, then estrus ends and the next estrus occurs after 6-9 months.
However, it is often the case that the hormonal changes are reversed for some reason and the endocrine glands continue to produce hormones that are temporarily not needed by the animal. Then various diseases caused by the hormonal changes occurai.

The main ones are non-malignant and oncological disorders of the mammary glands, purulent inflammation of the endothelium, vaginal tumours or prolapse, and false pregnancy. In males, increased sexuality, sometimes leading to aggression, and various disorders of the prostate are observed. The main canine genital diseases.


One of the most common and life-threatening diseases of the genital tract is pyometra, an infectious inflammation of the uterus. It develops when the balance of sex hormones in the body is disturbed. The uterus is a very good breeding ground for a variety of microbes that can enter the uterus from the normal microflora of the vagina or urinary tract, during estrus, when the cervix is open, especially if the bitch is kept unclean or is allowed to bathe, during farrowing, during mating or during childbirth, and so forth.

Uterine mucosal abnormalities are largely encourages the use of hormonal drugs to terminate estrus or pregnancy.

The most common cases are older (7-9 years), unsterilised bitches with no offspring, but there are also cases of young bitches in their first estrus. The bitch becomes listless, has a reduced or no appetite, starts to bark a lot, urinates more and sometimes vomits, which often leads owners to think it is just poisoning and to hesitate to seek medical attention.

If the cervix is open, the vaginal discharge is copious, thick, foul-smelling, caramel-like and sometimes bloody. If the cervix remains closed, pus accumulates in the uterus, it becomes very large, causing an increase in abdominal volume, and the unresolved pus is absorbed into the bloodstream and causes severe intoxication. Closed pyometra progresses very quickly and often leads to shock and rapid death. Temperature rises in only 20% of affected animals. Therefore, the best way to prevent this terrible disease is to bitches kaboarding.


This is a condition in which a bitch appears to be pregnant but there is no reason for it. It shows all the physical signs and symptoms of a true pregnancy. The disease manifests itself 2-3 months after estrus. The dogs become quite pushy, huddling around the owner, many behaving restlessly, finding a place to put their toys and protecting them as if they were their own puppies, rushing home as quickly as possible after a walk to feed their imaginary children.

Diagnosing the disease is relatively easy. Squeeze any nipple with two fingers and see the milk come out. Many dog owners are convinced that once a bitch has mated or given birth at least once, the false pregnancy disappears. However, this is not the case. The disease occurs in innocent bitches, especially in bitches with unstable psyches, bitches that have given birth after a heat that did not result in mating, and bitches that have given birth after a mating, without fertilisation taking place.

If the false pregnancy passes easily, no treatment is needed. After about 10 weeks, the animal’s condition returns to normal. If the bitch’s condition is severe, then the vet will prescribe treatment. If the false pregnancy recurs frequently, then castration is necessary. The main cause of false pregnancy is the formation of various nodules in the mammary glands.


This occurs in young males. Usually at 2-3 years of age they become quieter. Neutering is only necessary if the male becomes aggressive during the bitch heat, tries to mate with people and objects, marks the spot in inappropriate places, and cannot be tamed when walking. If you do not want to operate on your dog, the hypersexuality can be reduced for 2-3 months with medication prescribed by your vet.


Many health problems can occur with age. Prostatitis – inflammation of the prostate gland – and adenoma – enlargement of the prostate gland – are often seen. Prostatitis occurs due to bacterial growth in the prostate gland, and adenomas due to hormone disruption. Prostatitis and adenoma in dogs often occur simultaneously.

These diseases make it difficult to urinate, sometimes only a few drops are passed. Temperatures can rise up to 40 degrees C0. The enlarged gland may press on the rectum during defecation. Constipation can lead to perineal hernia, various rectal lesions.

The dog is depressed, reluctant to eat, the lower abdomen is painful. If you find this disease, be sure to contact your veterinarian. The best treatment is castration. By the way, prostate tumours are rare and almost never occur in neutered animals. Neutering does not affect the ability to learn or to work; on the contrary, it makes it easier to train the animals as they are less distracted.

a little about the operation itself

It is carried out under general anaesthesia in a veterinary clinic. When any surgery is performed surgery, there are risks associated with anaesthesia. Its duration depends on the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the animal and, of course, on the experience of the doctor. The operation lasts between 60 (males) and 90 minutes, including anaesthesia and pre-operative preparation.

The best time for neutering is between one and two years

Many veterinarians follow the theory of early neutering – before sexual maturity, the first estrus – at 4-6 months, on the grounds that the younger the animal, the easier it is to tolerate the operation. Both theories are correct and you can discuss the options with your vet. In practice, there are no complications after castration, especially in males.

However, side effects cannot be ignored. Weight gain, which must be normalized after neutering, dulling of the puppies’ coat, symmetrical baldness on the sides in some short-haired animals. Urinary incontinence is the most common and unpleasant consequence of neutering. It is more common in large breeds.

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